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Literacy and APA Resources

Is it CRAAP? The CRAAP Test helps you evaluate sources to determine whether or not they are appropriate for an academic assignment. 




  • When was the information published or posted?
  • Has the information been revised or updated?
  • Does your topic require current information, or will older sources work as well?
  • If you're using a web source, are the links functional?




  • Does the information relate to the topic or answer your question?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Is the information at an appropriate level (not to elementary or advanced for your needs)?
  • Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining which ones to use?




  • Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
  • What are the authors' credentials or organizational affiliations?
  • Is the author qualified to write on the topic?
  • Is contact information available, such as a publisher or email address?
  • If a web source, does the URL reveal anything about the author or source? (.org, .edu, .gov)



  • Where does the information come from?
  • Is the information supported by evidence?
  • Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
  • Does the language or tone seem unbiased and free of emotion?
  • Are there spelling, grammar, or topological errors?




  • What is the purpose of the information? Is it to inform, teach, sell, entertain, or persuade?
  • Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
  • Is the information fact, opinion, or propaganda?
  • Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?
  • Are there political, religious, ideological, cultural, institutional, or personal biases? 

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